Our introduction to basic logic emphasizes these mathematical functions that have truth values as their inputs and a truth value as their result. They can also be referred to as truth functions or logical functions.
The simplest of these functions is called
not, also known
as negation. Negation provides a way to talk about things that do not
have a certain property, ones that are not in a certain set, or where
the value of a predicate is
false. In our logic, these
are all just different ways of expressing the same idea.
The next group of pictures illustrate negation. The parts of the pictures in the first group that were green, or blue, or yellow are white in this group. The areas that were white in the first group of pictures are marked here with stripes, indicating that in the original picture they had the property of being not green, not blue, or not yellow.
So every point that was colored (true) in the first set of pictures is
white (false) here and each point that was white (false) in the first
set is shaded (true) here. we can treat
not as a
function that takes
false as its
input and produces a value of
This behavior can be defined with a table. You can look up the value
not x by going to the row labeled with the value of
To use the table, look up the row labeled with the value of the input
“X”. The value of the function is in that row under “not X”. So
(not false) = true and
(not true) = false.
Moving the mouse over one of these pictures or touching it on a touch
screen will cause the truth table entries to highlight.
This kind of table that shows the truth value produced by true or false inputs to a function is called a truth table. The entries where the value is true are shaded with blue lines to highlight the difference between true and false. We will use this color scheme in other truth tables as well.
In our notation we write the property of not being blue as
not(blue x) or
Of course we can also read this as saying that the predicate blue is
not true for x, or that x is not in the set of things that are blue.
In mathematics a statement like
(not(A x)) is
commonly called the negation of a statement
(A x). The negated statement is true of
all the things where theoriginal statement
(A x) is false.
Another notation sometimes used for negation is “~”.
As an example of our next function, suppose you are thinking what to
have for lunch, and decide it must either be delicious or easy. In
the first picture let circle D represent things that are delicious and
circle E represent things that are easy. The combined area then
represents things that are delicious or easy. We can write that a
thing x is “delicious or easy” as
(D x) | (E x).
Everything in the parts of the picture that are shaded have this
The shaded part of the second picture also represents things that are delicious or easy, this time using the same shading for all of them instead of separate shadings for D and E.
All areas of the first picture that are shaded yellow or green are
shaded blue in the second picture. Once again we can use a function
to model this relationship. This function has two inputs. Each input
value is boolean (true or false) and so is the result. Again,
hover the mouse over either of the pictures to highlight the
appropriate parts of the truth table for the function named
This truth table is organized with a row for each value of the first
input and a column for each value of the second input. The value of
the function is in the row for the value of the first input and the
column for the value of the second input. So for example
(false | true) = true.
Suppose you are feeling more picky about your lunch, and decide it
must be both delicious and easy. Only things in both of the circles
fit this description – the small shaded area in the next picture. In
Prooftoys we write
((D x) & (E x)).
Once again, at each point “x” in the picture,
((D x) & (E x)) is true exactly when
is true and
(E x) is also true. We can define a
function with this truth table:
What if there is nothing that is both easy and delicious? A picture for that situation could like this:
The picture has no shaded area because region D and region E do not
overlap; there is no part of the picture where
(D x) and
(E x) are both true. If that really is your
requirement, in this scenario there is no possible lunch for you!
A common notation for conjunction is “
&”, for example
p & q.
A simple yet important property of truth values is equality. In this case we will give the truth table immediately:
It shows that
true is equal to
is equal to
false, and neither one is equal to the other,
all as you would expect. For boolean values it is sometimes written